William D. Carrigan and Clive Webb, “‘Muerto por Unos Desconocidos (Killed by people Unknown)’:…
… Mob Violence against African Americans and Mexican Americans, ” in Beyond grayscale: Race, Ethnicity, and Gender within the U.S. Southern and Southwest, ed. Stephanie Cole and Allison Parker (College facility, 2004), 35–74; William D. Carrigan and Clive Webb, “A Dangerous Experiment: The Lynching of Rafael Benavides, ” New Mexico Historical Review, 80 (summer time 2005), 265–92. For the Texas research study, see Nicholas Villaneuva Jr., “‘Sincerely Yours for Dignified Manhood’: Lynching, Violence, and United states Manhood during the first many years of the Mexican Revolution, 1910–1914, ” Journal for the western, 49 (cold temperatures 2010), 41–48. On mob physical violence against “racial other people” within the West, see, for instance, Pfeifer, harsh Justice, 86–88; Pfeifer, Roots of harsh Justice, 46–50; and Scott Zesch, The Chinatown War: Chinese l. A. Therefore the Massacre of 1871 (nyc, 2012). Regarding the lynching of 29 Sicilians, another ethnic team regarded as racially various within the postbellum South, see Clive Webb, “The Lynching of Sicilian Immigrants within the United states South, 1886–1910, ” United states Nineteenth Century History, 3 (Spring 2002), 45–76. In the lynching of Sicilians in Colorado, see Stephen J. Leonard, Lynching in Colorado, 1859–1919 (Boulder, 2002), 135–42.
Christopher Waldrep, the countless Faces of Judge Lynch: Extralegal Violence and Punishment in the us (ny, 2002); Christopher Waldrep, ed., Lynching in the usa: a brief history in papers (New York, 2006); Christopher Waldrep, African Us americans Confront Lynching: methods of opposition through the Civil War to your Civil Rights age (Lanham, 2008); William D. Carrigan and Christopher Waldrep, eds., Swift to Wrath: Lynching in Global Historical attitude (Charlottesville, 2013). Jonathan Markowitz, Legacies of Lynching: Racial Violence and Memory (Minneapolis, 2004), xxxi. On lynching when you look at the context of Jim Crow tradition, see Grace Elizabeth Hale, Making Whiteness: The customs of Segregation into the Southern, 1890–1940 (nyc, 1998), 199–238. For analyses of literary and artistic representations of lynching through the belated nineteenth through the mid-twentieth hundreds of years, see Jacqueline Goldsby, the Spectacular Secret: Lynching in American lifestyle and Literature (Chicago, 2006); and Sandy Alexandre, The qualities of Violence: Claims to Ownership in Representations of Lynching (Jackson, 2012). For narratives of southern and vigilantism that is western lynching, see Lisa Arellano, Vigilantes and Lynch Mobs: Narratives of Community and country (Philadelphia, 2012). For lynching into the context associated with Protestant tradition regarding the postbellum American South, see Donald G. Mathews, “The Southern Rite of Human Sacrifice: Lynching into the United states South, ” Mississippi Quarterly, 62 (Winter–Spring 2008), 27–70. Amy Louise Wood, Lynching and Spectacle: Witnessing Violence that is racial in, 1890–1940 (Chapel Hill, 2009), 14. Fury, dir. Fritz Lang ( mgm, 1936); The Ox-Bow Incident, dir. William Wellman (Twentieth Century Fox, 1943). On lynching when you look at the people culture of new york’s reduced Piedmont, see Bruce E. Baker, “North Carolina Lynching Ballads, ” in less than Sentence of Death, ed. Brundage, 219–46. On lynching in belated nineteenth- and early twentieth-century black colored movie theater, see Koritha Mitchell, coping with Lynching: African American Lynching has, Efficiency, and Citizenship, 1890–1930 (Urbana, 2012). Sherrilyn A. Ifill, From the Courthouse Lawn: Confronting the Legacy of Lynching in the Twenty-First Century (Boston, 2007). For a residential district research that explored the long legacy of racially inspired lynchings in Marion, Indiana, in 1931, see James H. Madison, Lynching within the Heartland: Race and Memory in the usa (nyc, 2001). For a summary of lynching in US culture, see Ashraf H. A. Rushdy, American Lynching ( brand New Haven, 2012). When it comes to argument that the end-of-lynching discourse will continue to contour and distort discussion of US mob physical violence, see Ashraf H. A. Rushdy, the termination of American Lynching (brand new Brunswick, 2012).
Crystal Feimster, Southern Horrors: ladies as well as the Politics of Rape and Lynching (Cambridge, Mass., 2009). On African women that are american relationship to lynching, see Evelyn M. Simien, ed., Gender and Lynching: The Politics of Memory (nyc, 2011). For situation studies of lynchings of African US ladies in Georgia, Oklahoma, and sc, see Julie Buckner Armstrong, Mary Turner therefore the Memory of Lynching (Athens, Ga., 2011); and Maria DeLongoria, “‘Stranger Fruit’: The Lynching of Black ladies, The situations of Rosa Jefferson and Marie Scott” (Ph.D. Diss., University of Missouri–Columbia, 2006). For a journalistic remedy for the lynching of two African US couples in Walton County, Georgia, in 1946, see Laura Wexler, Fire in a Canebrake: the final Mass Lynching in the us (nyc, 2003). In the lynching of females and young ones within the West, see Helen McLure, you think Strange the Murder of Women and Children’: The American Culture of Collective Violence, 1675–1930” (Ph.D. Diss., Southern Methodist University, 2009)“‘ I suppose. For a summary of feminine lynching victims, see Kerry Segrave, Lynchings of females in the us: The cases that are recorded 1851–1946 (Jefferson, 2010). Claude A. Clegg III, Troubled Ground: an account of Murder, Lynching, and Reckoning into the brand New Southern (Urbana, 2010); Terrence Finnegan, A Deed So Accursed: Lynching in Mississippi and South Carolina, 1881–1940 (Charlottesville, 2013). On Mississippi’s respected record of racial mob physical violence, see Julius E. Thompson, Lynchings in Mississippi: a brief history, 1865–1965 (Jefferson, 2007). This Mob Will Surely Take My Life: Lynching in the Carolinas, 1871–1947 (London, 2008); and J. Timothy Cole, The Forest City Lynching of 1900: Populism, Racism, and White Supremacy in Rutherford County, North Carolina (Jefferson, 2003) on lynching in the Carolinas, see Bruce E. Baker.
Kidada E. Williams, They Left Great markings on me personally: African US Testimonies of Racial Violence from Emancipation to World War I ( brand brand New York, 2012). On African American reactions to mob physical physical violence, see Karlos Hill, “Resisting Lynching: Ebony Grassroots reactions to Lynching within the Mississippi and Arkansas Deltas, 1882–1938” (Ph.D. Diss., University of Illinois, 2009).
Current scholarship, particularly that dedicated to civil liberties activism, has started to explore African US reactions to racial terror during sexier females the level that is local.
On black colored responses to terror that is racial fin-de-siecle Florida as well as in 1960s and 1970s Alabama and Mississippi, respectively, see Paul Ortiz, Emancipation Betrayed: The Hidden reputation for Ebony Organizing and White Violence in Florida from Reconstruction to your Bloody Election of 1920 (Berkeley, 2006); Hasan Kwame Jeffries, Bloody Lowndes: Civil Rights and Ebony energy in Alabama’s Ebony Belt (nyc, 2010); and Akinyele Omowale Umoja, We Will Shoot Back: Armed Resistance when you look at the Mississippi Freedom Movement (nyc, 2013). Ifill, Regarding The Courthouse Lawn, xix–xx. When it comes to Senate apology, see Congressional Record, 109 Cong., 1 sess., June 13, 2005, p. S6364–88. For news protection associated with the U.S. Senate apology see, for instance, Wendy Koch, “U.S. Senate Moves to Apologize for Injustice, ” usa Today, June 13, 2005; and Martin C. Evans, “An Apology for Old kind of Terror: Senate Expects to Vote Tomorrow on Resolution regarding Its Failure to aid End Practice of Lynching, ” Newsday, June 12, 2005, p. A34. On efforts to memorialize lynchings in Duluth, Minnesota, in 1920 plus in cost, Utah, in 1925, respectively, see Dora Apel, “Memorialization as well as its Discontents: America’s First Lynching Memorial, ” Mississippi Quarterly, 61 (Winter–Spring 2008); and Kimberley Mangun and Larry R. Gerlach, “Making Utah History: Press Coverage of this Robert Marshall Lynching, June 1925, ” in Lynching beyond Dixie, ed. Pfeifer, 143–47. The chains: In Montgomery, Ala., a Move to Remember Slavery Exactly Where It Happened, ” New York Times, Dec. 10, 2013, pp on an effort by Bryan Stevenson and the Equal Justice Initiative to erect memorials at lynching sites around the South, see Campbell Robertson, “Before the Battles and the protests. 17–18.